How Can A Person Lower Their Risk Of Getting Mpox During Sex
Those at higher risk of exposure or severe health outcomes should consider reducing their number of sexual partners and limiting sex with new partners and should exchange contact details with any new partners to enable follow-up if needed.
If you or a partner has mpox, the best way to protect yourself and others is to not have sex of any kind and to not kiss or touch each otherâs bodies while you are sick, especially any rash or sores. Do not share items such as towels, fetish gear, sex toys, and toothbrushes.
How To Identify A Monkeypox Rash: Symptoms To Look Out For
Later, safer smallpox vaccines that relied on other poxviruses were developed. After a global campaign, the WHO in 1980 declared that smallpox had been eradicated a triumph of public health.
But fears that the virus could re-emerge because of a laboratory accident or bio-attack have remained. The terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, worsened the concerns, thrusting the virus back into U.S. minds and the national budget.
“There was a lot of concern about smallpox bioweapons attack, especially after the anthrax attacks in 2000,” Hotez said. “It was known the USSR had been working on weaponized smallpox for years.”
Since the turn of the millennium, the U.S. government has spent more than $1 billion to develop and stockpile the Jynneos smallpox vaccine.
“The government have more than a million doses of Jynneos, liquid frozen, at the Strategic National Stockpile or stored in our facility in Europe,” said Paul Chaplin, the president and CEO of Bavarian Nordic, the Danish company that manufactures the vaccine.
Just last week, Bavarian Nordic announced that the U.S. government had exercised its contract option to fill and finish 13 million more doses of freeze-dried Jynneos vaccine in the coming years. But the announcement wasnt related to the recent outbreak, Chaplin said: “It was completely coincidental.”
The vaccine is made from a modified, nonreplicating form of the vaccinia virus, which is part of the same family as monkeypox and smallpox.
How Is The Vaccine Given
Most vaccines are given by injection into the muscle of the upper arm or the tissue just above it .
Some vaccines can also be injected into the upper layer of the skin. This is known as intradermal vaccination. This is how the MVA vaccine to protect against monkeypox may be given.
Intradermal vaccination is a slightly different way of giving the MVA vaccine. You’ll be given a much smaller dose, using a smaller needle and syringe. The dose is about one fifth of the amount given by other methods.
The injection may take a few seconds longer and should produce a small blister that disappears within a minute. This method is commonly used for skin testing and vaccination against tuberculosis .
Its expected to be just as effective as the other ways of giving the MVA vaccine. It also means NHS Scotland can offer the vaccine to more people. Intradermal vaccination is approved by the JCVI. The JCVI advises UK health departments on immunisation. Intradermal vaccination is also being used in the United States.
When vaccines are injected into the skin, rather than the muscle or tissue just above it, the important proteins in the vaccine are more accessible to the cells of your immune system.
This means that your body can make a good response to the vaccine, even with a much smaller dose.
This technique has been commonly used during outbreaks of other infections, such as yellow fever.
- have a weakened immune system
- have keloid scars
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Considerations Involving Children And People Who Are Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
JYNNEOS is a live, non-replicating viral vaccine licensed for prevention of both smallpox and mpox disease. JYYNNEOS can be offered to people who are pregnant or breastfeeding who are otherwise eligible.
ACAM2000 is a replicating viral vaccine licensed for prevention of smallpox. Vaccination with ACAM2000 is contraindicated in people who are pregnant or breastfeeding, due to risk of pregnancy loss, congenital defects, and vaccinia virus infection in fetuses and newborns and the availability of a non-replicating viral vaccine.
People who are pregnant: Available human data on JYNNEOS administered to people who are pregnant are insufficient to determine vaccine-associated risks in pregnancy. Animal models, including rats and rabbits, have shown no evidence of harm to a developing fetus.
People who are breastfeeding: The safety and efficacy of JYNNEOS has not been evaluated in people who are breastfeeding. It is not known whether JYNNEOS is excreted in human milk. Data are not available to assess the impact of JYNNEOS on milk production or the safety of JYNNEOS in breastfed infants. Because JYNNEOS vaccine is replication-deficient, it likely does not present a risk of transmission to breastfed infants and can be administered to people who are breastfeeding if vaccination is critical.
For more information, see Vaccination Administration Considerations for Specific Populations.
What Do I Do If I Am Diagnosed With Mpox
If you are diagnosed with mpox, or an orthopox virus, avoid others until your rash has fully healed and a fresh layer of skin has formed. This includes:
- Avoiding sex or being intimate with anyone until all your sores have healed and you have a fresh layer of skin formed.
- Avoiding being in crowds
- Avoiding contact with animals including pets, domestic animals, and wildlife.
Additional precautions should be taken, including:
- Rashes on the body should be covered with long sleeves or pants to avoid touching other people.
- If rashes canât be easily covered, stay away from other people and pets as much as possible.
- Wash your hands often with soap and Use hand sanitizer if soap and water are not available.
- Wash surfaces and materials that you have touched while you had symptoms, including bedding, towels, clothing, sex toys, and surfaces such as door handles or counters. Standard household cleaning and disinfecting products may be used in accordance with the manufacturerâs instructions.
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Can Children Get Mpox
Yes, children and adolescents can get mpox. It is not known if children are more likely than adults to get mpox if exposed to the virus. The virus spreads to children in the same ways that it spreads among adults, through contact with the rash, respiratory droplets, and by touching contaminated objects, towels, clothing, bedding, etc. Data on serious complications in children is lacking and the CDC continues to monitor for this information and will provide updates as the information becomes available.
What Is The Shingles Vaccine
The shingles vaccine can protect you against shingles and postherpetic neuralgia , which is the most common complication of shingles. Shingles is a painful rash caused by the varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The rash usually develops on one side of your body or face. It starts with red bumps and then the bumps turn into fluid-filled blisters.
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A Closer Look At The Safety Data
The modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine was developed to offer a safer smallpox vaccine option for people who would not be able to safely receive ACAM2000 . When JYNNEOS received FDA approval, it was approved to prevent smallpox and mpox. JYNNEOS is the preferred vaccine to prevent mpox.
The overall JYNNEOS clinical trial program included 22 studies and a total of 7,859 people ages 18 through 80 years of age who received at least 1 dose of JYNNEOS.
In one clinical trial, researchers found people with skin conditions who received JYNNEOS experienced mild to moderate skin reactions from the vaccine. No safety concerns were found during this study in people with skin conditions.
Several studies assessed the cardiac safety of people who received JYNNEOS. During a study of the vaccine and placebo groups, there were three cases of heart palpitations, two cases of tachycardia and no cases of myocarditis or pericarditis detected. Overall, data did not suggest an increased risk of myocarditis or pericarditis after vaccination with JYNNEOS compared with placebo controls.
Which adverse events are considered serious?
By the Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, an adverse event is defined as serious if it involves any of the following outcomes:
Monkeypox Chickenpox Or Shingles Infectious Diseases Experts Explain The Difference
Are you protected against shingles if you had chickenpox before? Also, read about why some Singaporeans might be protected against monkeypox, thanks to a past policy.
Is this a sign of monkeypox or chickenpox?
Weve yet to get over the COVID-19 pandemic and we’ve got another health concern on hand: Monkeypox.
The virus has made its way to our shores in the form of the first local case detected in Singapore. The man is not linked to the imported case that culminated in 13 close contacts identified so far. The previous run-in Singapore had with monkeypox was in 2019.
As of Jun 22, the World Health Organization recorded more than 3,400 laboratory-confirmed cases and one death globally thats 1,310 more new cases and eight new countries added to the list since the WHOs report on Jun 17, which also noted that 86 per cent of the cases are detected in Europe.
With so many diseases to keep an eye on, you might be feeling overwhelmed. For instance, how do you tell if the fluid-filled blisters youve developed are signs of monkeypox or chickenpox? If youve had chickenpox before, do you still need to get vaccinated? And how protected are you against monkeypox?
CNA Lifestyle checks in with the infectious disease specialists for the rundown:
ARE MONKEYPOX AND CHICKENPOX CAUSED BY THE SAME VIRUSES?
HOW ARE BOTH DISEASES SPREAD?
HOW DO YOU TELL IF ITS MONKEYPOX OR CHICKENPOX?
Heres a summary from Dr Smitasin on how monkeypox and chickenpox compare:
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Monkeypox Not Related To Shingles Or Covid
CLAIM: The recent cases of monkeypox are actually just shingles, and the cases are a result of the COVID-19 vaccine.
APS ASSESSMENT: False. Shingles and monkeypox are not the same and are caused by different viruses, experts told The Associated Press. While they both cause rashes with blisters, monkeypox belongs to the same family of viruses as smallpox, and shingles is caused by the herpes virus that causes chickenpox. One website misused a stock photo of a shingles rash in an article about monkeypox, and the story has since been updated to remove the picture. Experts say the vaccine cannot cause monkeypox, as it is spread by exposure to an infected human or an infected animal.
THE FACTS: As health officials monitor recently-identified cases of monkeypox around the world, some social media users are sharing their fears and skepticism about the virus with false claims, including that monkeypox is actually shingles.
Many posts making the false claim include a screenshot showing a side-by-side comparison of two websites. Both have the same photo of a hand with raised lesions.
The headline over the photo on TheHealthSite.com, a health news website based in India, from July 17, 2021, reads: Rare Monkeypox cases reported from US, First Time In Nearly 20 Years: All You Need To Know About It. The headline on the other side, which comes from the state government health department website of Queensland, Australia, reads: What is shingles?
Heat Map Normalization Of Human And Prairie Dog Data
Heat map intensity values were normalized between human and prairie dog samples by running human samples with protein G-biotin secondary conjugate and comparing the resultant signals with data obtained using donkey anti-human IgG-biotin . Differences in fluorescence intensities when comparing the individual serum reactivities with individual protein spots between the two assays provided correlative intensities. Equivalent intensity ranges were then established beginning at 1/2 of the cutoff value and continuing with approximately 2-fold increases up to the maximum fluorescence intensity measurable by the array scanner . Correlative values between assays were assigned the same shading and used to show similar responses within the heat maps.
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Additional Advice For Mpox Patients
The CDC provides general guidance on cleaning and disinfecting non-healthcare settings where an individual with mpox spent significant time.
- People with mpox should avoid contact with animals , including pets.
- If possible, friends or family members should care for healthy animals until the owner has fully recovered.
- Keep any potentially infectious bandages, textiles and other items away from pets, other domestic animals, and wildlife.
- There is currently no evidence that animals apart from mammals can become infected and transmit mpox.
- If you notice an animal that had contact with an infected person appearing sick contact the owners veterinarian, state public health veterinarian, or state animal health official.
Safe sex, barrier practices are recommended, but there is little data to support the length of time patients need to wear condoms. Some other countries are recommending a minimum of 8 weeks, but we are still learning about this virus in the context of transmission through sexual contact. As public health experts learn more about mpox transmission this guidance will be updated.
Patients should seek prompt medical care as soon as they experience signs or symptoms associated with mpox or believe they were exposed to an mpox infection.
Chickenpox Shingles And Vaccines: Expert Shares What You Need To Know
Chickenpox and shingles generally wont kill you, but for some adults, they could result in a trip to the hospital. So with a new shingles vaccine now available, should you consider vaccination to avoid chickenpox and shingles as an adult?
What is chickenpox, exactly?
Its an infection caused by the varicella zoster virus. In children, its usually a mild disease that runs its course in five to 10 days and requires no medical intervention. But in those who develop chickenpox as teens or adults, theres a risk of complications, including pneumonia, skin infections and brain swelling.
Whats the difference between chickenpox and shingles?
Adults can develop shingles if theyve already had chickenpox. Also called herpes zoster, shingles is a reactivation of the virus that causes chickenpox. After you recover from chickenpox, the virus doesnt entirely disappear it lies dormant in nerve tissue near your spinal cord and brain. When it springs into action again as a painful skin rash, thats shingles.
This time, the pain will likely come before the rash some people only experience the pain without any visible symptoms. Like chickenpox, shingles usually isnt life-threatening, but it can cause complications, including neurological problems, skin infections and eye infections that lead to vision loss.
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Does My Child Need To Be Excluded From Childcare/school/summer Camp/activities If They Are Diagnosed With Mpox Or Are A Close Contact
If your child is diagnosed with mpox, they should not attend childcare/school/summer camp until all scabs have fallen off and a new layer of skin has formed. If your child is a close contact of someone with mpox but does not have symptoms, parents should carefully monitor their child for symptoms for 21 days, but the child may continue to attend childcare/school/summer camp. Discuss vaccination with your childâs healthcare provider. Vaccine is most effective in preventing mpox if given within 4 days of exposure.
Who Is Getting The Vaccine
In this outbreak, the vaccine is being deployed to close contacts of individuals with confirmed monkeypox cases, Adalja tells Healthline.
The United Kingdom is currently offering vaccines, however not to the public. It is currently isolating those with confirmed infections and offering the vaccine to close contacts to help prevent the spread.
Schaffner tells Healthline that the makers of JYNNEOS are actively making the vaccine as many countries in Europe are likely reaching out to them for supply.
There are other manufacturers such as Tonix Pharmaceutical who are developing new ways to vaccinate the public against pox viruses, but currently, these vaccines are still in development.
Avoiding people with known monkeypox is the first step someone can take to avoid the virus. Similarly, if you know someone who has been potentially exposed, avoid close or intimate contact until the incubation period of up to three weeks has passed.
As with most bacteria and viruses, good hand hygiene after contact with infected animals or humans is important. This includes washing your hands with soap and warm water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
You can avoid contact with animals who may have been exposed to the virus or been found dead in areas where monkeypox is endemic. Additionally, avoid contact with any materials such as bedding, which has touched a sick animal with monkeypox.
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How Concerned Should We Be Now About Monkeypox
On an individual level, the risk of acquiring monkeypox has increased but it is still lower that many other infections. For those who do get monkeypox, the disease is often mild. For serious disease such as a painful rash, involvement of the face, or co-existing immunosuppression, treatment is available. Treatment requires use of antiviral medications that are dispensed by a specialized pharmacy since these medications are not yet FDA approved, but often does not require hospitalization.
On a population level, based on the history of monkeypox over the past few decades and from what we have seen so far, monkeypox has not reached a level of threat comparable to the ongoing COVID pandemic. So, while I think we can be cautiously optimistic that the outbreak will be controlled, I think its important to have a healthy respect for the potential dangers of any emerging disease and to be ready for the unexpected. We need to support the public health agencies and laboratories that are working hard to understand the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment options so we are prepared to address whatever circumstances come our way with as much scientific precision as possible.