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Does The Shingles Vaccine Work

Is The Shingles Vaccine Safe

What You Should Know About Shingles Vaccines | Johns Hopkins Medicine

As with any vaccine, its possible to have some side effects after receiving it. In clinical studies, the side effects linked to this vaccine usually lasted only 2 to 3 days, and the most common ones were:

  • Pain and redness at the injection site

Most people report at least some arm pain after the injection. Some people reported that their side effects kept them from doing their usual daily activities. For this reason, its a good idea to plan to not do anything right after receiving your injection, just in case.

Severe allergic reaction to this vaccine is very rare. Symptoms of such a reaction include:

Who Should Get Shingrix

Adults 50 years and older should get two doses of Shingrix, separated by 2 to 6 months. Adults 19 years and older who have or will have weakened immune systems because of disease or therapy should also get two doses of Shingrix. If needed, people with weakened immune systems can get the second dose 1 to 2 months after the first.

You should get Shingrix even if in the past you:

  • Received varicella vaccine

There is no maximum age for getting Shingrix.

If you had shingles in the past, Shingrix can help prevent future occurrences of the disease. There is no specific length of time that you need to wait after having shingles before you can receive Shingrix, but generally you should make sure the shingles rash has gone away before getting vaccinated.

Chickenpox and shingles are related because they are caused by the same virus . After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus stays dormant in the body. It can reactivate years later and cause shingles.

Shingrix is available in doctors offices and pharmacies.

If you have questions about Shingrix, talk with your healthcare provider.

* A shingles vaccine called zoster vaccine live is no longer available for use in the United States, as of November 18, 2020. If you had Zostavax in the past, you should still get Shingrix. Talk to your healthcare provider to determine the best time to get Shingrix.

The Mechanism Of The Immune System

And then two options follow, Kilic explains. To understand those options, we need to zoom in a little deeper on the immune system. Our immune system consists of two parts the innate and the acquired immune systems. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infections and other pathogens: it springs into action quickly and is not very selective in clearing out invaders. The acquired immune system comes into action a little later, after about ten days, and specifically targets certain pathogens.

It was long thought that only the acquired part can learn to recognize the pathogens it comes into contact with, making a new attack milder. It was also thought that the innate part cannot. But in recent years, it has become clear that the innate immune system does have a memory and can therefore be ‘trained’. Training means that a vaccination, such as the shingles vaccine, can prepare the immune system for, and arm it against not only that specific disease, but also against other infectious diseases.

“So one explanation for the high effectiveness is that the shingles vaccine activates both innate and acquired defenses because of that specific substance. The other possibility is that a broader acquired immune response is triggered by this vaccine,” Kilic said. By mapping out which paths the shingles vaccine takes in the immune system, she hopes to shed more light on the exact reason why this vaccine works well.

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Should I Get A Vaccine

Doctors say most healthy people over 50 should get Shingrix, as well as anyone 19 or older who are immunocompromised. Itâs available at pharmacies as well as doctorsâ offices. Most people have been exposed to the chickenpox even if they didnât actually develop symptoms.

You should get the Shingrix vaccine unless:

  • You are allergic to any part of the vaccine
  • Had a blood test that proves you never had chicken pox
  • Have shingles now
  • Are breastfeeding or nursing.

When Should You Get Immunised Against Shingles

What Is the Shingles Vaccine?

Anyone aged 60 years and over who wants to protect themselves against shingles can talk to their doctor about getting immunised.

Shingles immunisation is recommended for:

  • adults aged 60 years and over who have not previously received zoster vaccine
  • adults aged 70 years to 79 years, for free under the National Immunisation Program
  • adults aged 50 or over who live in the same household as someone who has a weakened immune system.

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Shingrix Is Not A Live Vaccine

A live vaccine is one that contains a weakened form of a germ. Shingrix is not a live vaccine. Its an inactive vaccine, which is a vaccine thats made from a germ thats been killed.

Because Shingrix is inactive, more people can receive it. This includes people with a weakened immune system .

People with weakened immune systems are typically advised against receiving live vaccines. This is because on very rare occasions, live vaccines can mutate back to the full-strength germ that causes a disease.

If this happens, people with weakened immune systems would have a much higher risk for developing the disease that the vaccine is meant to prevent.

Shingrix is also a recombinant vaccine. This means that its made of parts of the shingles virus, such as protein, sugar, or capsid .

There used to be an alternative shingles vaccine to Shingrix. This other vaccine was called Zostavax.

Like Shingrix, it was approved to prevent shingles . However, Zostavax is

Below, we briefly describe the similarities and differences between these two vaccines.

How Is The Shingles Vaccine Made

The shingles vaccine available in the U.S., Shingrix®, contains a single protein from the surface of herpes zoster virus as well as two adjuvants: QS21 and monophosphoryl lipid A. QS21 is a soap-based molecule isolated from the bark of the Quillaja saponaria tree. Monophosphoryl lipid A is a detoxified form of lipopolysaccharide, a potent adjuvant taken from the surface of common bacteria.

The first shingles vaccine, called Zostavax®, is no longer available in the U.S. However, this version contained a more concentrated version of the same live, weakened virus as the current chickenpox vaccine. It contained about 14 times the amount of weakened chickenpox virus than the vaccine for children. This amount of virus was necessary to obtain a protective response in the aging immune systems of older adults. The introduction of Shingrix vaccine was important because adjuvants in the vaccine improved immune responses in older adults and decreased the need to use large quantities of the live, weakened virus also necessary to make chickenpox vaccine. For these two reasons Zostavax is no longer available in the U.S.

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Shingrix For Prevention Of Shingles

Shingrix is a vaccine thats used to prevent shingles . Its approved for use in people:

  • ages 50 years and older
  • ages 18 years and older who have an increased risk of shingles

People with an increased risk of shingles include those with a weakened immune system, such as people with HIV.

Shingrix is not meant for use in preventing chickenpox .

Effectiveness for prevention of shingles

Shingrix has been found to be effective in helping to prevent shingles. For details on how the drug performed in clinical studies, see Shingrixs

state that Shingrix is the preferred vaccine for shingles. They recommend it for:

  • all adults ages 50 years and older
  • adults ages 18 to 50 years with a weakened immune system

Coadministration With Influenza Vaccine

Do I Need to Avoid Being Around Infants After Getting a Shingles Vaccine?

A total of 828 patients were included in the study, 413 in the co-administration group and 415 in the control group. Among coadministration patients, VRR was 95.8% , and anti-gE GMC ratio was 1.08 . Immunogenicity to the IIV4 vaccine was also noninferior between the groups. This study demonstrated that immune responses to both HZ/su and IIV4 were not affected by coadministration.12

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Can People Who Got The Shingles Vaccine Be Around Babies

Yes, people who had the shingles vaccine can be around babies. Unlike the previously available Zostavax vaccine, Shingrix does not contain live, weakened virus, so it does not replicate and people do not get a rash. Therefore, there is no chance of transmitting the virus to babies who are susceptible to chickenpox. Watch as Dr. Offit discusses being around babies after receiving a shingles vaccine in this short video, part of the series Talking About Vaccines with Dr. Paul Offit.

The 1970s Vaccine Success

During the 1970s, one vaccine was eliminated. Because of successful eradication efforts, the smallpox vaccine was no longer recommended for use after 1972. While vaccine research continued, new vaccines were not introduced during the 1970s.

Late 1970s | Recommended Vaccines

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More Common Side Effects

The more common side effects of Shingrix can include:

  • pain, redness, and swelling at site of injection*
  • dizziness or fainting
  • flu-like symptoms, including fever, shivering, and tiredness

Most of these side effects may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. If theyre more severe or dont go away, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

* For more information about this side effect, see Side effect details below.

Reasons To Get The Shingles Vaccine

Age and the Shingles Vaccine

Once a person develops chickenpox after contracting the varicella-zoster virus, the virus never leaves the body. It remains dormant in the nerve roots and can reappear as shingles later in life.

The primary symptom of shingles is a painful rash on one side of the body, most often on the torso or face. People initially have pain or a burning sensation on the skin without a rash, and then painful blisters develop. The rash lasts approximately seven to 10 days and fully clears within two to four weeks.

The likelihood of developing shingles increases dramatically after age 50. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all adults age 50 and over receive two doses of Shingrix to prevent shingles. The vaccine is recommended even if a person is unsure if they have ever had chickenpox.

People with weakened immune systems are at higher risk for shingles. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration also recently approved Shingrix vaccination for adults age 18 and older who are at risk for shingles due to immunodeficiency or immunosuppression caused by an underlying disease or medication.

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Introduction: Varicella Zoster Virus: Structure Pathogenesis And Immune Response

Varicella zoster virus is a ubiquitous neurotropic human herpesvirus that causes two distinct diseases. These are primary varicella infection and herpes zoster , a vesicular dermatomal rash that results from reactivation of the latent virus. Along with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, VZV is part of the alpha herpesvirus family of DNA viruses. Its linear 125-kb double-stranded DNA genome encodes at least 71 unique open-reading frames , with approximately 40 conserved genes shared with other human herpesviruses . The genome is located within an icosahedral capsid, surrounded by a protein tegument and encapsulated by a polyamine, lipid, and glycoprotein envelope . Glycoproteins located within the envelope facilitate viral entry into cells .

After transmission to a susceptible host, VZV proliferates in the oropharynx . During an initial viremic phase, infected T cells transport the virus to skin and possibly other organs, although the lack of suitable animal models of infection limits understanding of the precise mechanisms of VZV pathogenesis . Epidermal replication of the virus to produce cell-free VZV occurs when local antiviral responses have been overcome, the characteristic lesions of varicella appear . The incubation period ranges from 10 to 21 days.

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What Everyone Should Know About The Shingles Vaccine

Shingles vaccination is the only way to protect against shingles and postherpetic neuralgia , the most common complication from shingles.

CDC recommends that adults 50 years and older get two doses of the shingles vaccine called Shingrix to prevent shingles and the complications from the disease. Adults 19 years and older who have weakened immune systems because of disease or therapy should also get two doses of Shingrix, as they have a higher risk of getting shingles and related complications.

Your doctor or pharmacist can give you Shingrix as a shot in your upper arm.

Shingrix provides strong protection against shingles and PHN. In adults 50 years and older who have healthy immune systems, Shingrix is more than 90% effective at preventing shingles and PHN. Immunity stays strong for at least the first 7 years after vaccination. In adults with weakened immune systems, studies show that Shingrix is 68%-91% effective in preventing shingles, depending on the condition that affects the immune system.

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Im Living With Hiv Is It Safe For Me To Get Shingrix

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hasnt made a recommendation about the use of Shingrix in people living with HIV.

However, one study looked at healthy adults ages 18 and older who were living with HIV and had an HIV dosing schedule that was customized to their needs. These people received the Shingrix vaccine, and the study results did not report any safety issues.

If youre living with HIV, talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of getting Shingrix.

Warnings Of Shingrix And Zostavax

How long does SHINGRIX, a shingles vaccine, last?

Shingrix and Zostavax can cause hypersensitivity, or allergic, reactions in those with allergies to vaccine ingredients. Zostavax may cause severe allergic reactions in those with a known allergy to gelatin or neomycin. Severe allergic reactions can lead to severe rash and trouble breathing .

Zostavax should be avoided in those who take immunosuppressive agents and those who are affected by medical conditions that weaken the immune system.

Ask your doctor or pharmacist about other precautions before getting a shingles vaccine.

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Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward

GSK cautions investors that any forward-looking statements or projections made by GSK, including those made in this announcement, are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. Such factors include, but are not limited to, those described in the Companys Annual Report on Form 20-F for 2020 and any impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

When To See A Doctor For The Possible Side Effects Of A Shingle Vaccine

Most side effects of the shingles vaccine will resolve on their own within a few days of vaccination or can be treated with over-the-counter medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen.

In the rare case that you develop a more serious reaction after vaccination, you should call a doctor or go to a health clinic.

Medical emergency

Its rare but possible to have a serious allergic reaction to a shingles vaccine. Call emergency services or go to the nearest emergency room if you experience the following symptoms after a vaccination:

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Measles Mumps And Rubella

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella are viral infections that have each caused widespread, deadly disease outbreaks. Throughout the 1960s, individual vaccines were developed for each of them, but a decade later, they were combined into one.

Measles was the first of the three to receive its own vaccine in 1963, followed by mumps in 1967, and rubella in 1969. Two years later, in 1971, Maurice Hilleman of the Merck Institute of Therapeutic Research developed a combined vaccination that would provide immunity for all three viruses.

Hilleman was credited with creating the first measles and mumps vaccine, and began researching ways to incorporate a system of immunity for each virus. Using his previous research and a rubella vaccine developed by Stanley Plotkin in 1969, he created the first successful MMR vaccine in just two years.

According to the CDC, One dose of MMR vaccine is 93% effective against measles, 78% effective against mumps, and 97% effective against rubella.

Two doses of MMR vaccine are 97% effective against measles and 88% effective against mumps.

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Personal Stories About Considering A Shingles Vaccine

What You Should Know About the Shingrix Vaccine for Shingles Prevention

These stories are based on information gathered from health professionals and consumers. They may be helpful as you make important health decisions.

I talked to my doctor about the shingles vaccine and I think I’m going to get it. My wife had shingles 2 years ago, and she was really in a lot of pain. If I can avoid that by getting a vaccine, it will really be worth it to me.

Abel, 65

I’m not going to get a vaccine, at least not right now. I don’t like to take medicines of any kind if I don’t have to.

Hattie, 50

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Who Should Not Get The Shingles Vaccine

Some people shouldnt get the shingles vaccine. These people include those:

  • Who currently have shingles.
  • Who have had a severe allergic reaction to the shingles vaccine in the past.
  • Who have tested negative for immunity to the varicella-zoster virus, meaning youve never had chickenpox. If youve never had chickenpox, you should get the chickenpox vaccine.
  • Who are ill. You should wait until your illness has passed before receiving the shingles vaccine.
  • Who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Can My Grandfather With Shingles Give My Baby Daughter Chickenpox

Yes, although people with shingles cannot pass shingles to someone else, they can pass chickenpox virus to others through direct contact with the rash. If your baby has not yet had chickenpox or the chickenpox vaccine, she could become infected with the virus and develop chickenpox.

Unlike chickenpox that can be passed to others through coughs or sneezes, people with shingles can only pass the virus to others through direct contact with the rash. If the rash has yet to develop or has crusted, the patient cannot transmit the virus. Similarly, people who still have pain without the rash are no longer able to transmit the virus.

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