Friday, April 12, 2024

Will The Shingles Vaccine Help With Genital Herpes

What Are The Side Effects Of The Shingles Vaccine

Describe the New Genital Herpes Therapeutic Vaccine and How it Works

Just like with any other medication or vaccine, there is always a risk of potential side effects or allergic reactions. The shingles vaccine, however, is considered to be safe and poses a small risk of side effects.

  • The Zostavax shingles vaccine may cause:
  • Redness, soreness, swelling, or itching at the site of the injection, or
  • The Shingrix shingles vaccine may cause:
  • Soreness, mild or moderate pain, or redness and swelling in the injected arm,
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    When They Start How Long They Last

    The shingles vaccine is given in a two-shot series. You may experience side effects after the first, second, or both shots. Most of the time, these symptoms are mild and occur immediately following vaccination. They typically only last for two or three days.

    Side effects of the shingles vaccine are more common in younger people, and might interrupt your normal daily activities for a few days.

    This may seem like a downside of the shingles vaccine, but remember that these symptoms are a result of the creation of a strong shingles defense within your body.

    It is OK to take Tylenol or Advil after a shingles vaccine to relieve symptoms. Rest and plenty of fluids may help, too.

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    Improving Our Immune Response To Control Herpes

    T cells embedded in tissues where latent HSV-2 hides are known to play a role in controlling the virus. Hutch scientists are also exploring how B cells, the antibody-making factories of the immune system, also work to keep the virus in check. Hutch researchers hope to build on this understanding to develop immunotherapies to control reactivation, reduce transmission to sexual partners, and design vaccines to prevent infection.

    Recommended Reading: How To Know If You Have Shingles Rash

    Clinical Herpes Simplex Infection

    Primary infection with herpes simplex involves grouped vesicles on an erythematous base. Mucocutaneus manifestations include eczema herpeticum, herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, folliculitis, or a severe/chronic mucocutaneous infection. Extracutaneous manifestations include ocular HSV keratoconjunctivitis. Herpes Encephalitis, Proctitis, and Neonatal HSV. These manifestations are often the ones with prominent morbidity and mortality .

    Ocular HSV infection has complications that include corneal ulceration and scarring, globe rupture, and subsequent blindness. Epithelial keratitis has strong links to viral replication, while stromal keratitis is primarily immunopathologic and is promoted mainly by T cells . Consequently, HSV is one of the main causes of infectious blindness in developed countries .

    Herpes encephalitis has > 70% mortality without treatment, with residual neurological defects in most surviving patients . Similarly, disseminated neonatal HSV has 50% mortality without treatment, 15% with treatment and with neurologic deficits in many recovering patients .

    Moderna Is Targeting Shingles Herpes And Cancer The Ceo Is Looking Beyond Covid

    Will Shingles Vaccine Help With Herpes

    Moderna unveiled efforts to develop vaccines for herpes, shingles, and cancer on Friday as it continues to put the enormous cash reserves it has earned through sales of its Covid-19 vaccine to work in expanding its pipeline of products.

    The effort to target shingles, in particular, gives a hint as to how its cash, coupled with its messenger RNA strategy, could allow it to move fast as it seeks to compete with the established vaccine makers as the Covid-19 pandemic fades.

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    Fever And Feelings Of Malaise

    Fever is one of the most common side effects of many vaccines, including Shingrix. This symptom often accompanies other feelings of malaise, such as muscle pains, chills, and headaches. A fever indicates that the bodys immune system is doing its job of responding to the vaccine.

    Ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and other OTC fever reducers can help keep a fever and many accompanying symptoms at bay. However, if you develop a high-grade fever of 103°F or higher, reach out to your doctor immediately.

    Approach To Herpes Simplex Virus Therapy

    Nucleoside analogs, including acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir, remain standard therapies for mucocutaneous and visceral HSV infection. Idoxuridine, trifluorothymidine, vidarabine, and cidofovir are used topically for ocular HSV infections .

    Development of HSV resistance to acyclovir and valacyclovir is rare despite extensive use for treatment of infection . Increased prevalence is seen in patients with herpetic keratitis . Antiviral resistance is increased in immunocompromised patients, specifically patients with HIV infections and bone marrow transplants . IV Foscarnet and cidofovir are usually effective for acyclovir resistant viral strains . Continued exposure to cidofovir does not easily induce resistance. However, there have been case reports of cidofovir-resistant HSV and CMV .

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    Reasons To Get The Shingles Vaccine

    Once a person develops chickenpox after contracting the varicella-zoster virus, the virus never leaves the body. It remains dormant in the nerve roots and can reappear as shingles later in life.

    The primary symptom of shingles is a painful rash on one side of the body, most often on the torso or face. People initially have pain or a burning sensation on the skin without a rash, and then painful blisters develop. The rash lasts approximately seven to 10 days and fully clears within two to four weeks.

    The likelihood of developing shingles increases dramatically after age 50. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all adults age 50 and over receive two doses of Shingrix to prevent shingles. The vaccine is recommended even if a person is unsure if they have ever had chickenpox.

    People with weakened immune systems are at higher risk for shingles. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration also recently approved Shingrix vaccination for adults age 18 and older who are at risk for shingles due to immunodeficiency or immunosuppression caused by an underlying disease or medication.

    How Do You Catch Shingles

    Promising New Herpes Zoster Vaccine

    You do not “catch” shingles it comes on when there’s a reactivation of chickenpox virus that’s already in your body.

    After you’ve recovered from chickenpox, the varicella-zoster virus lies dormant in your nerve cells and can reactivate at a later stage when your immune system is weakened.

    Anyone who has had chickenpox can get shingles.

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    How Cdc Monitors Vaccine Safety

    CDC and FDA monitor the safety of vaccines after they are approved or authorized. If a problem is found with a vaccine, CDC and FDA will inform health officials, health care providers, and the public.

    CDC uses 3 systems to monitor vaccine safety:

    • The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System : an early warning system, co-managed by CDC and FDA, to monitor for potential vaccine safety problems. Anyone can report possible vaccine side effects to VAERS.
    • The Vaccine Safety Datalink : a collaboration between CDC and 9 health care organizations that conducts vaccine safety monitoring and research.
    • The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project: a partnership between CDC and several medical research centers that provides expert consultation and conducts clinical research on vaccine-associated health risks.

    Vaccination Of Immunocompromised Adults 19 Years And Older

    CDC recommends two doses of RZV for the prevention of shingles and related complications in adults aged 19 years who are or will be immunodeficient or immunosuppressed because of disease or therapy. The second dose of RZV should typically be given 26 months after the first. However, for persons who are or will be immunodeficient or immunosuppressed and who would benefit from completing the series in a shorter period, the second dose can be administered 12 months after the first. For more detailed clinical guidance see .

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    Further Considerations For The Future Of Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccine Development

    Our understanding of the complexities of herpes simplex virus pathogenesis and immune evasion is consistently evolving, along with our understanding of viral latency. Designing an effective therapeutic or prophylactic vaccine requires further understanding these processes.

    Trials that had been successful in the pre-clinical realm with murine model and guinea pig models have been effective, but have not translated well in the clinical realm. Other trials like the GSK gD subunit vaccine and the GEN-003 vaccine have been suspended due to dwindling financial support . To us, the HSV-529 and G103 appear to be promising from early studies in the pre-clinical stage. Additionally, they are likely to have less issues with safety as they are not live-attenuated vaccines.

    The rapid development of an mRNA vaccine for COVID-19 has re-vitalized interest in mRNA vaccines as viable options to produce viral immunity. The classical problems involving the creation of mRNA vaccines include mRNA stability and delivery systems. It remains to be seen whether mRNA vaccines might have a utility for HSV however, initial studies with the trivalent vaccine have been promising, showing increased efficacy compared to a subunit formulation .

    The advantages of an mRNA vaccine were previously discussed: It does not integrate within the host genome, translates in both proliferating and non-proliferating cells, with immediate protein production for a controllable amount of time .

    Routine Vaccination Of People 50 Years Old And Older

    HSV vs âHerpesâ?: Words Matter!

    CDC recommends Shingrix for the prevention of herpes zoster and related complications. CDC recommends two doses of Shingrix separated by 2 to 6 months for immunocompetent adults aged 50 years and older:

    • Whether or not they report a prior episode of herpes zoster.
    • Whether or not they report a prior dose of Zostavax, a shingles vaccine that is no longer available for use in the United States.
    • It is not necessary to screen, either verbally or by laboratory serology, for evidence of prior varicella.

    Recombinant and adjuvanted vaccines, such as Shingrix, can be administered concomitantly, at different anatomic sites, with other adult vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines. Coadministration of RZV with adjuvanted influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccines is being studied.

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    Can My Grandfather With Shingles Give My Baby Daughter Chickenpox

    Yes, although people with shingles cannot pass shingles to someone else, they can pass chickenpox virus to others through direct contact with the rash. If your baby has not yet had chickenpox or the chickenpox vaccine, she could become infected with the virus and develop chickenpox.

    Unlike chickenpox that can be passed to others through coughs or sneezes, people with shingles can only pass the virus to others through direct contact with the rash. If the rash has yet to develop or has crusted, the patient cannot transmit the virus. Similarly, people who still have pain without the rash are no longer able to transmit the virus.

    Is Chickenpox And Shingles A Form Of Herpes

    Though shingles and herpes are two distinct conditions caused by two distinct viruses, the viruses are both members of a family formally known as herpesviridae. The herpes simplex virus takes its formal name from this umbrella term, while the varicella-zoster virus does not.

    Although it is a condition unrelated to herpes, shingles is sometimes referred to as herpes zoster, a nickname that references the shared family of the viruses that cause them. Within this viral family, only the herpes simplex virus causes the condition we know today as herpes.

    If you are ever unsure whether your doctor is referring to herpes simplex or shingles when you hear the word herpes, ask for clarification.

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    Where Can I Get The Shingles Vaccine

    Most doctors offices, medical clinics, and other healthcare facilities, including commercial pharmacies, offer the shingles vaccine. You shouldnt have any trouble finding it .

    If youre older than 50, or younger and your doctor recommends it, getting the shingles vaccine can protect you from a common and potentially serious illness.

    Who Should Not Get The Shingles Vaccine

    A Vaccine Pathway for Herpes Virus with Gregory Smith, PhD

    You should not get Shingrix if you:

    • Have ever had a severe allergic reaction to any ingredient in the vaccine or after a dose of Shingrix
    • Are not immune to the virus that causes chickenpox if you test negative for immunity, youll need to get the chickenpox vaccine
    • Currently have shingles
    • Are pregnant or breastfeeding

    If youre sick and have a fever of 101.3°F or higher, youll need to wait until youre feeling better to get the shingles vaccine.

    Side effects are usually mild and go away in a few days. They may include:

    • Pain, swelling, or redness where the shot was given

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    Hsv Pathogenesis And Replication

    Replication is a multi-step process. Post-infection, HSV glycoproteins interact with and attach to the cell. The viral envelope then fuses with the cell membrane, releasing its contents into the cell. DNA is uncoated and transported into the nucleus when nucleocapsid fuses with the viral envelope . Here, immediate-early genes are transcribed . Primary herpes infection involves replication within epithelial cells, with an incubation period of 46 days. Mature virions are then transported to the cell membrane, where they are released, causing cell lysis and local inflammation. Replication continues until host immune responses contain the initial infection .

    Herpesvirus ascends peripheral sensory nerves to spread to the trigeminal ganglion, where latent infection develops. Latent virus can be induced to reactivate. Reactivation has been associated with various stimuli including stress, infections, and UV light exposure. However, from a molecular standpoint, reactivation is a phenomenon that continues to be studied and is not clearly understood. Clinical manifestations of reactivation vary widely in terms of presentation and severity .

    Moderna Targets Shingles In Mrna Pipeline Expansion

    Related tags:Moderna, mRNA, Shingles, Vaccine

    There is no vaccine currently approved against HSV. For shingles, Pfizer is also developing a vaccine against the disease, with both mRNA pioneers hoping to offer a vaccine with higher efficacy and a more efficient production process than current vaccines.

    Both HSV and VZV are latent viruses that remain in the body for life after infection and can lead to life-long medical conditions. Moderna now has five vaccine candidates against latent viruses in development: with the new targets joining vaccines against cytomegalovirus , Epstein-Barr virus , Human immunodeficiency virus .

    Stéphane Bancel, CEO of Moderna, said: “We are committed to addressing latent viruses with the goal of preventing the lifelong medical conditions that they cause with our mRNA vaccine programs.

    With our HSV and VZV vaccine candidates, we also hope to improve the quality of life for those with symptomatic disease.

    With our new checkpoint cancer vaccine, we look forward to exploring if we can induce T cells specific to PD-L1 and IDO1 through vaccination.

    Our research teams are working on additional mRNA candidates, which we look forward to sharing in the future.”

    The three new projects will build on learnings from the company’s COVID-19 vaccine and join other candidates in Moderna’s pipeline which include a flu vaccine, RSV vaccine, and Zika vaccine.

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    Will There Be Any Side Effects From The Shingles Vaccination

    There are 2 shingles vaccines: Zostavax and Shingrix .

    With both vaccines it’s quite common to get redness and discomfort at the vaccination site, headaches and fatigue, but these side effects should not last more than a few days. See a GP if you have side effects that last longer than a few days, or if you develop a rash after having the shingles vaccination.

    Read more about the shingles vaccine side effects.

    Use In People With A History Of Herpes Zoster

    Virus

    People with a history of herpes zoster were excluded from the Shingles Prevention Study , so there are no data on vaccine efficacy in this group.

    One small clinical trial studied the safety and immunogenicity of Zostavax in people with a history of herpes zoster. Zostavax was well tolerated and immunogenic.59

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    New Approach Uses Mrna

    Early efforts to produce a protein-based vaccine for herpes failed. But a new mRNA approach has outperformed the efficacy of the past vaccines in preclinical trials and is expected to be introduced in clinical trials in the second half of 2022, investigators say. This new approach for a prophylactic genital herpes vaccine showed great promise in early studies.1

    Research into the mRNA herpes vaccine began long before the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines were developed, says Harvey M. Friedman, MD, professor of medicine/infectious diseases at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.

    Were pretty far along in the research, he says. We are using the mRNA technology in a vaccine effort for preventing genital herpes. Its not, at this point, intended for a treatment.

    The vaccine, which was studied in mice and guinea pigs, showed exceptionally good prevention. Were hopeful it will make it into humans this year, Friedman says. Sometime in the summer of 2022 is our target.

    This vaccine is good news for everyone at risk of STIs. More than one out of 10 Americans, age 49 years and younger, are infected with genital herpes, says Sita Awasthi, PhD, associate research professor in the infectious disease division at Perelman School of Medicine.

    The vaccine also might help reduce HIV infection, since herpes greatly increases a persons risk of contracting HIV, Awasthi says.

    Basic Research On Herpes

    The immune system is extremely complex, and Hutch research on how it responds to herpes has delivered surprising insights. Dr. Jennifer Lund discovered that, in response to genital herpes, a type of T cell thought to suppress inflammation will actually boost the immune response. Her team explores how these cells work to control the virus, particularly in mucosal tissues where infections begin â research that could help to develop a herpes vaccine. In another surprising discovery, Hutch researchers in the Corey Lab found that HSV-2 uses a small protein to help repair damaged nerves. Because the virus travels along nerves, it repairs them so it can spread infection to other tissues. The team is exploring whether this newly discovered nerve growth factor might be harnessed to reduce nerve damage, known as neuropathy, that is often a side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients.

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